Glossary

Please note that this glossary is intended as a general overview of commonly used terms. Please consult the specific funding announcement and funding agency for their definitions of specific terms.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA)
The ARRA, signed by the President on February 16, 2009, is also known as the Stimulus Bill. See also MorrisonGrants' Useful Links.
Cash Contributions
A recipient's cash outlay, usually including cash contributed by third parties.
Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA)
CFDA is an online database of federal programs. See also MorrisonGrants' Useful Links.
Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number
The identifying number that a federal program is assigned in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA). See also MorrisonGrants' Useful Links.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
The codification of the general and permanent rules of the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. It is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation. Many grant programs refer to, or incorporate by reference, sections of the Code of Federal Regulations. See also MorrisonGrants' Useful Links.
Cost Sharing or Matching
The portion of a project or program costs not covered by the grantor.
Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS)
Required by most federal programs and many others, a DUNS number is a unique nine-digit identification sequence, which provides unique identifiers of business entities. Assigned by Dun & Bradstreet. See also MorrisonGrants' Useful Links.
Disallowed Costs
Costs and expenses deemed unallowable in accordance with a specific program's rules.
Equipment
Tangible nonexpendable personal property, generally having a life in excess of one year. Most programs set a dollar limit; many federal programs specify costs of $5,000 or greater.
Equipment Acquisition Costs
Includes cost of the equipment and related modifications, attachments, accessories, installation, transportation, taxes, duties, in-transit insurance, and similar costs to acquire and install equipment.
Federal Register
The official daily publication of rules, proposed rules, and notices of Federal agencies and organizations, as well as executive orders and other presidential documents. See also MorrisonGrants' Useful Links.
Fiscal Year
The financial reporting year used by an entity. The federal government's fiscal year is from October 1 to September 30; state government fiscal years vary from state to state. Business entities, not-for-profits, and other organizations may use a calendar year but many have fiscal years that cover other 12 month periods. Less commonly, a fiscal year may be based on 52 weeks, a date ending the last Saturday of a specific month, or other proxies for a 12 month period.
Forms
Many forms are used by federal, state, and private grantors, which should be available from the granting agency. Many electronic submission processes (such as Fedconnect and Grants.gov) include these forms as an integral part of the application package. Common forms used for many federal and state programs include the "SF 424" family (e.g., SF-424, SF-424A, SF-424B, etc.) See also MorrisonGrants' Useful Links.
For-Profit Entity
An entity or organization that exists to generate a profit for its owners and investors. May include sole proprietorships, partnerships, Limited Liability Companies (LLCs), C Corporations, S Corporations, and Farmer and Rancher Cooperatives.
Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA)
See "Grant Announcements."
Funding Opportunity Number
The number assigned by a federal agency to a grant announcement.
Grant Announcements
Generically, an announcement of a grant that usually includes the program's goals, application requirements, rules, and due dates. There is no universally used term for "Grant announcements," even within a broad grantor type such as federal or state grants. Commonly used terms include: Funding Opportunity Announcement, Notice of Funding Availability, Notice of Funding Opportunity, Notice of Solicitation of Applications, Request for Proposals, and Solicitation of Applications.
Individual
An individual applicant submits a grant on their own behalf, not a company, organization, institution, government, or other entity.
In-Kind
Generally, the value of a contribution in the form of goods and/or services rather than cash. For many programs, some such contributions by the grant recipient are considered cash as they generally cost the recipient cash (e.g., the cost of employee time); the same contributions by Third Parties may be considered In-Kind.
Matching Costs
The amount required by a grantor to be contributed toward a grant-funded project by the grant recipient and/or by Third Parties. May be a Cash Contribution or In-Kind.
NAICS Codes
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) classification numbers are required by many grant programs and are used to classify business establishments for a variety of analytical purposes. NAICS numbers largely replace Standard Industry Codes (SIC), though a handful of agencies still use SIC codes. See also MorrisonGrants' Useful Links.
Nonprofit Entity
Generally, an organization that exists for a purpose other than to generate a profit for owners or investors, including charitable organizations, trade associations, and most institutions of higher learning. Please note that granting agencies often make distinctions between the various types of Nonprofit Entities, and only specific types may be eligible for specific programs. Note also that while 501(c)4 lobbying organizations are Nonprofit Entities they are almost never eligible.
Not-for-Profit Entity
See "Nonprofit Entity."
Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA)
See "Grant Announcements."
Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO)
See "Grant Announcements."
Notice of Solicitation of Applications (NOSA)
See "Grant Announcements."
Personal Property
Property of any kind except Real Property. It may be tangible, having physical existence, or intangible, having no physical existence, such as copyrights, patents, or securities.
Program Income
Gross income earned by the recipient that is directly generated by a supported activity or earned as a result of the grant award.
Real Property
Land, including land improvements, structures and appurtenances thereto, but excluding movable machinery and equipment.
Request for Proposals (RFP)
See "Grant Announcements."
Research and Development
Research is generally defined as a systematic study directed toward fuller knowledge or understanding of the subject studied. Development is the systematic use of knowledge and understanding gained from research directed toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems, or methods, including design and development of prototypes and processes.
SIC Code
Used to classify business establishments; largely replaced by the NAICS Code. See also MorrisonGrants' Useful Links.
Solicitation of Applications (SOA or SA)
See "Grant Announcements."
Standard Form 424 (SF-424) Series Forms
Standard government-wide grant application forms including: SF-424 (Application for Federal Assistance cover page); SF-424A (Budget Information Non-construction Programs); SF-424B (Assurances Non-construction Programs; SF-424C (Budget Information Construction Programs), and; SF-424D (Assurances Construction Programs). See also MorrisonGrants' Useful Links.
Stimulus Bill
See "American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009."
Subaward
An award of financial assistance in the form of money, or property in lieu of money, made under an award by a recipient to an eligible subrecipient or by a subrecipient to a lower tier subrecipient.
Subrecipient
The legal entity to which a subaward is made and which is accountable to the recipient for the use of the funds provided.
Supplies
Generally Personal Property excluding equipment, intangible property, and debt instruments.
Third Parties
An individual or entity other than the grantor and grant recipient. Third parties are not a direct party in the agreement between the grantor and grantee, but they may be present as a beneficiary to the contract or as someone affected by the contract.
US Code (USC)
The codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States. Many grant programs refer to, or incorporate sections of the United States Code by reference. See also MorrisonGrants' Useful Links.
Working Capital
In the strict accounting sense, working capital is the difference between current assets and current liabilities.  For grant purposes, “working capital” usually means funds needed to pay for the operating expenses of a specific project (e.g., salaries, marketing, inventory, supplies) as opposed to capital costs (e.g., land, equipment, buildings).  Most grant programs that fund working capital require it to be related directly to the grant-funded project, not general operating expenses.  It is important to read the specific definitions for each grant program.